This is the 49,444th access to this page.
36 bits forever!
This is one of the two pages at Best.com that describe the history
of 36-bit computing: www.inwap.com/pdp10 = www.best.com/~inwap/pdp10/.
The other one, www.multicians.org
is Tom Van Vleck's
history of Multics. Both of these computers use 36-bit words with 18-bit
addresses, but otherwise have very little in common.
(Another set of web pages dedicated to 36-bit computers
is at www.36bit.org/ .)
This page was listed in the NCSA Mosaic What's New page for June 16, 1995.
36 bit systems running today
25-Nov-96: personal-use license for TOPS-10 and TOPS-20.
Digital Equipment Corporation: KA, KI, KL, KS
16-Jun-2007: ComputerWorld's ad favorites over the last 40 years includes
one from 9-Nov-1981: The
DEC equipment on the Net:
- DEC-10.PDPplanet.COM is a 2065 accessible on the network, running TOPS-10. So there's now an example of DEC hardware on the net.
Paul Allen's machine (xkleten.paulallen.com) is an XKL-1 (a.k.a. TOAD-1)
There are a couple of other XKL-1 systems in addition to XKL and Paul Allen, but they aren't public access.
There are several klh10-based TOPS-20 systems up 24/7: lingling.panda.com, bi5.bootstrap.org, kankan.twenex.org, tops.drkngs.com, tina.update.uu.se. There are some others which are intermittantly up.
Two ITS systems are intermittantly up: its.svensson.org, md.spacy.boston.ma.us.
and links to other hobbiest-owned hardware.
Run TOPS-10 or TOPS-20 on a KS-2020 emulator on your own hardware!
- toad.xkl.com is running on a TOAD-1.
They are still running an NCSA web server on toad.xkl.com,
but it now redirects to Apache on an x86 box.
XKL Systems TOAD, TOPS-20 Monitor 7(102605)-1
HTTP/1.0 200 Document follows
Date: Tue, 21 May 2002 %T GMT
Last-modified: Thu, 11 Apr 2002 %T GMT
- Publicly accessable PDP-10 set up by
Paul Allen (the other co-founder of Microsoft).
- Unknown number of SC40M systems running at Compuserve Classic at UUNET.
- No known instances FOONLY systems still running.
Developers, DECUS, People
- DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) cancelled the follow-on CPU 17-May-83.
- The Evolution of the DECsystem-10 (Bell, Kotok, Hastings and Hill) from Computer Engineering - Bell, Mudge, McNamara
- Foonly is out of the business. But their one-and-only F1 was used by
Information International Inc (III) to render the graphics used in the
movie "TRON". The legacy of that movie lives on as "Toy Story" and the
TV show ReBoot.
- Tymshare made a 26KL system for the Augment project until McDonnell
Douglas took over Tymnet and cancelled the project in 1987.
- The SC Group used to be known as Systems Concepts
and is still selling their SC-40.
- Compuserve manufactured their own SC-25 systems for a while. (The SC Group
licensed their design to Compuserve during the time when the SC-40 was
- XKL renamed their TD-1 to TOAD-1,
we have 2 CPUs in production.
- RP06 replacement by
- PDP-10/TOPS-10 heard as "Doctor Memory"
in Firesign Theatre's "We're All Bozos on this Bus":
- The big computer that runs everything in the FUTURE
FAIR, described in the FT's BOZO play. The Doctor was also mentioned
in a poem on the "Dear Friends" album. He is based on an old SAILON
LISP program written for the PDP-10 running the TOPS-10 operating
system. AhClem repeatedly calls Dr. Memory "Mac" - which far
predates the current Apple computer line; but the MIT AI lab, where
the Doctor program originated, grew out of Project Mac (for Machine
Aided Cognition and/or Multiple Access Computer)
- Also known as ELIZA.
- DECsystem at RCS.
- Byte covers
- TOPS-10 Evolution - dates when features
were added to the TOPS-10 Monitor.
- PDP-10 Kermit page
- DECSYSTEM-20 at Columbia University
was mentioned on SlashDot.
- We're listed in YAHOO under http://www.yahoo.com/Computers/Hardware/Platforms/Digital/.
- Tim Shoppa's archive of PDP-10 software
- TAKE ME, I'M YOURS - The autobiography of SAIL
- Text-based role-playing games: ADVENT, ZORK, HAUNT.
- Soul of an Old Machine
- Tony in RH20 Land, or "I Should
Have Listened When Mother Told Me There Was A Great Future In
- Mr. Bill's DEC-20
- Software Wars
- DEC Wars (a parody of Star Wars)
- Harris S. Newman is working on re-implementing DECWAR (the multi-player game) in C.
- PDP models
- The man page for read20, a UNIX program to read TOPS-20 DUMPER
tapes. C sources in read20.tar
- DUMPER a
BLISS program in the DECUS library
for reading TOPS-10/BACKUP and TOPS-20/DUMPER tapes on VAX/VMS. See also
10BACKUP, written in MACRO-32 and VAX BASIC.
- John Wilson's collection of programs to read PDP-10 tapes that were written by
- The pager used for ITS.
- Megan Gentry's computer interests, including dual-KL TOPS-10/SMP
- Big GIFs from XKL's flyer.
- Rob Austein's Alice's PDP-10 (sung to
the tune of "Alice's Restaurant".) [local copy]
- Stuff at biostat.washington.edu
- Henry Baker's documents
(copied to http://www.inwap.com/pdp10/hbaker/ because Netcon's FTP
server is constantly running up against the limit of simultaneous
- The famous HAKMEM
file copied from ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/hb/hbaker/hakmem/hakmem.html
- MIT's info file on the PDP-10 instruction set
copied from ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/hb/hbaker/pdp-10/pdp-10.html
- Sunsite's PDP-10
- The Online Book Initiative at ftp://ftp.std.com/obi/DEC/36-bit/
had two papers so far. [Archive offline, Jan 2001.] Local copies are in
- KA-10 with BBN Pager running Tenex: Dan Murphy, Tymshare.
- Stuff found at John Wilson's site ftp://ftp.dbit.com/pub/pdp10
(site formerly known as ftp://tats.wizvax.net/pub/pdp10)
- Pictures of PDP-10s at MIT
- A Web page dedicated to the game of ADVENTure (which includes
a pointer to a nifty site that allows you to play ADVENT on the Web.)
- Sources to ADVENT
- Tom Knight's PDP-6 blueprints.
- PDP-6 at the Australian Computer Museum.
- AI Memo 161a "ITS 1.5 Reference Manual".
- Carl Friend's photo of a KI-10
- Monitor Installation Guide 7.03
- Non-Unix OS History
which has these details for TOPS-10:
1964=PDP-6 Monitor and TOPS-10 1.4; 1966=1.9; 1967=2.18; 1968=3.27;
1969=4.50 and 4.72; 1970=5.01; 1971=5.02; 1972=5.06; 1974=5.07 and 6.01;
1975=5.07A (last OS for KA-10); 1975=6.02; 1977=6.03; 1978=6.03LIR;
1979=7.02; 1980=7.01; 1983=7.02; 1985=7.03; 1988=7.04
Details for TOPS-20:
1969=TENEX; 1976=TOPS-20 v1; 1977=v2; 1978=v3; 1980=v3A; 1981=v4; 1982=v5;
- Old documents forwarded by Klaus Zeuge
- Facebook: Happy DEC-20 Day!
- Michael Thompson's DECSYSTEM-2020 KS10, S/N 4224
News and mailing lists
Date: Wed, 02 Aug 95 11:23:03 -0400
From: dbj@MPGN.COM (David E. Brooks Jr)
Organization: Tantalus Incorporated
Subject: Interesting little tid-bit
Just for kicks, I ran 'DECsystem-ten' through the internet
anagram server (http://www.wordsmith.org/awad-cgibin/anagram)
and it came back with "Decent System".
Very appropriate, I thought.
-- Dave Brooks
Updated: Sunday, 07-Dec-2014 01:20:00 GMT
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